H8
Simulation Supporting Certification 1

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15:35
conference time (CEST, Berlin)
An Acoustic Evaluation of a Skid Steer Loader
26/10/2021 15:35 conference time (CEST, Berlin)
Room: H
A. Rajagopal (Dassault Systemes, USA); V. Patel (The Charles Machine Works, Inc., USA); R. Mallyala, Dassault Systemes, USA)
A. Rajagopal (Dassault Systemes, USA); V. Patel (The Charles Machine Works, Inc., USA); R. Mallyala, Dassault Systemes, USA)
Earth-moving machinery often produce A-weighted overall sound levels that can vary between 95 to 105 dBA, which may exceed regulatory levels that the operators and workers experience. This can have severe and permanent consequences on their hearing, notably in the case of improper use or lack of protective gears. The regulations imposed on such machines follow standards that depend on the market location and the function of the machinery. One such standard is the ISO 6393 that measures the noise emitted to the environment and the operator in A-weighted sound overall sound power level, thereby providing safety regulations under stationary test conditions. The Ditch Witch brand under The Charles Machine Works Inc. has relied on PowerFLOW’s Lattice-Boltzmann framework of high fidelity and realistic aero-acoustic simulations consistently over the last decade. With similar intentions, Ditch Witch has collaborated with SIMULIA to perform acoustic evaluations on a skid-steer machine as per ISO 6393 norms, to estimate fan-noise trends for different fan-shroud design variants. The study uses a single environment automated workflow embedded on the SIMULIA Cloud platform to firstly, create the simulation model, secondly, submit the design iterations, and finally analyze the results, which allows the democratization of standardized acoustic evaluations to users with all levels of expertise in the subject. The study starts with a set of fan-shroud designs optimized for cooling airflow through the heat exchangers, subjected to virtual acoustic tests that follow the norms of ISO 6393 testing conditions. This presentation will focus on the design changes in the cooling package that contributed to the different trends in the fan-noise levels, and how the benefits were leveraged in the latter stages of product development. The study ends with a comparison between the virtual tests and prototype tests at different stages of the design cycle allowing validation of the simulation results.
Acoustics; design of experiments; optimization; fan noise; CFD; Lattice-Boltzmann
15:55
conference time (CEST, Berlin)
Accelerating Regulatory Compliance with 3D Model-Based Simulation
26/10/2021 15:55 conference time (CEST, Berlin)
Room: H
J. Quincy (Dassault Systemes, FRA); M. Beyer, E. Grald (Dassault Systemes, USA)
J. Quincy (Dassault Systemes, FRA); M. Beyer, E. Grald (Dassault Systemes, USA)
The aerospace industry can benefit from increasing the use of engineering simulation to augment and/or replace physical testing as the means of compliance for flight vehicle certification and qualification. Drivers in the industry include an increasingly competitive worldwide market that focuses on customer experience, greater demands on efficient design to deliver the best customer value, and meeting societal expectations regarding environmental sustainability. Winning this competitive race requires mastering growth in system complexity, delivering high quality, and above all ensuring safety. Physical tests are often on the critical path of program schedules, driving up development and certification cost, and program risk. Today, certification requirements are responsible for a significant portion of an aircraft manufacturer's development cost. This paper explores opportunities for aerospace manufacturers to streamline vehicle compliance processes with advances in simulation. The paper outlines the use of multiscale approaches to build confidence in simulation accuracy, and the need to support long-term simulation data persistence. The benefits of a collaborative software platform to ensure simulation governance and facilitate model conformity are also described. Simulation and design should be tightly associated with automated model updates in order to enable data-driven decisions from concept trades, preliminary and detailed design, to certification. Engineering simulation software covers the breadth of physical phenomena: structural analysis, electromagnetics, aerodynamics, heat transfer, vibro-acoustics and more. Aerospace simulation complexity spans from system-level models to time-accurate simulations with millions of degrees of freedom. In airframe development, analysis applications include aerodynamic modeling, external loads, internal loads, sub-system structural validation, and airframe structural vulnerability. Over time, the industry has gained increasing confidence in simulation to accurately predict a vehicle’s physical response and performance, which has led to greater use of simulation to demonstrate regulatory compliance. Simulation can be strategically leveraged to reduce program risks and cost while streamlining physical test activities. Simulation capabilities increasingly demonstrate equivalent or more accurate results than physical test. Simulation can be used to replace hazardous tests or complement physical tests covering a few operational conditions to cover the entire operational envelope. Certification agencies are supportive of simulation as a means of reducing and/or replacing physical tests where economically attractive, provided simulation is verified to be as accurate. The paper describes capabilities required for an IT platform to support the proper simulation credibility assurance framework within the context of aircraft development and certification. We also include two industrial case studies to illustrate how engineering simulation has been used to reduce vehicle development time and certification cost.
certification, virtual testing, simulation credibility assurance, physical tests, simulation
16:15
conference time (CEST, Berlin)
Virtual Testing for Authorization of Railway Vehicle Brake Systems
26/10/2021 16:15 conference time (CEST, Berlin)
Room: H
O. Urspruch (Knorr-Bremse SfS GmbH, DEU); M. Krammer (Virtual Vehicle Research GmbH, AUT)
O. Urspruch (Knorr-Bremse SfS GmbH, DEU); M. Krammer (Virtual Vehicle Research GmbH, AUT)
Railway vehicles have to undergo extensive authorization tests before they are put into service. This is especially true for railway vehicle brake systems, as these tests are very costly, extensive, and time-consuming. Virtual testing is assumed to represent a feasible solution to decrease these efforts. The use of simulation methodologies requires a technically accepted process, a credible and trusted model, calibration of this model, and a minimum of available measurement data. The challenge is to guarantee the exactly same safety levels that are achieved through real testing, and to provide a convincing argument, why simulation methodologies are suitable for that purpose. In our contribution, we highlight the results of the European Shift2Rail PIVOT-2 project, contributing to these challenges. Our approach integrates into existing railway vehicle development processes. Existing measurement data is selected to calibrate and validate the model. This allows for virtual testing as a novel tool, to be applied before or during vehicle development. The presented approach is under discussion with important bodies like the European Railway Agency (ERA) and NB-RAIL. Furthermore, the approach is also based on existing standards that already recommend the application of simulation methodologies, e.g., standards regarding methods for calculation of stopping and slowing distances (EN 14531) or wheel slide protection (EN15595). Many methods, tools and processes of the railway industry are currently pushed by increasing levels of digitization. The application of simulation technologies in the railway sector is also driven by ongoing standardization activities of international consortia. In the end it is expected that these innovations will lead to a more competitive railway engineering market, including more software tool vendors and service providers, striving for higher quality railway vehicles and products. It is expected that these innovations contribute to a decreased time-to-market, putting new vehicles faster into service, to ultimately contribute to sustainability goals, like reduction of emissions in transportation.
virtualization, testing, simulation
16:35
conference time (CEST, Berlin)
Orifice Plates Sizing for Cases out of the Scope of ASME MFC-14M-2003 (low Re number and low β ratio)
26/10/2021 16:35 conference time (CEST, Berlin)
Room: H
R. Konieczny (HPE 8 Sp. z o. o., POL)
R. Konieczny (HPE 8 Sp. z o. o., POL)
Differential-pressure flow measurements using flange orifices plates are most common to measure flows in gas seals support systems. An increasing measured flow or pressure indicates increasing gas seal leakage and possible problems of a gas seal. It is then critical to ensure that orifice plates are designed correctly and provide measurements with precise accuracy. Orifice meters sizing for that purposes is predominantly performed based on empirical and analytical formulas specified in ASME MFC-14M-2003. Recently, for economic and environmental reasons, measured flows are lower and below flows covered in the standard. Gas mass flows are relatively low, and therefore the calculated Reynolds numbers are outside the covered scope. Furthermore, to achieve measurable pressure drop for such gas flow, it is needed to use a small orifice bore for which its ratio to an internal pipe diameter is also out of the scope. Despite this, the industry still uses standard flange orifice plates because of their simplicity, low cost, and availability. This paper aims to check the possibility of calculating such flow cases with the help of CFD analysis. Performed analysis are in 3D domains for steady-state, turbulent and compressible flows. The computational models consist of upstream and downstream pipes of nominal diameters 1" and sharp-edged, bevelled, thin orifice plate. The publication also compares the pressure drop values and discharge coefficients calculated for orifice plates based on normative formulas outside the scope of their applicability to CFD analysis results. The analysed cases include flows for which the Reynolds number is below 1000 through orifice meters of a diameter ratio (β) less than 0.15. Additional measurement uncertainties or correction terms for orifices sized based on normative formulas for such flows can be calculated based on the presented results. The analysis are validated based on cases included in the standard. The conclusion is to assess whether orifice plates sizing considering computed uncertainties is acceptable or whether application of the correction terms is necessary.
orifice plates, pipe flow, gas, gas seals, differential-pressure, orifice meters, pressure drop, cfd
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