E10
Computational Electromagnetics

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08:35
conference time (CEST, Berlin)
Non-parametric Shape Optimization of an EV-drive Permanent Magnet Synchronous Machine
27/10/2021 08:35 conference time (CEST, Berlin)
Room: E
E. Lange, C.B.W. Pedersen, M. Hoffart (Dassault Systèmes, DEU); S. Reitzinger, Dassault Systèmes, AUT)
E. Lange, C.B.W. Pedersen, M. Hoffart (Dassault Systèmes, DEU); S. Reitzinger, Dassault Systèmes, AUT)
The design of an electrical machine is a trade-off between multiple requirements rooting from different physical disciplines subject to strict cost and manufacturing considerations. Throughout the past decades, engineers and scientists aggregated a vast amount of knowledge in design methodologies and processes to accommodate the various competing requirements. Usually, the design process starts with the conceptual phase addressing the overall topology of a drive train and possibly moves on to a trade-off analysis of various machine types. The next design step is typically the synthesis of the initial design for a specific machine type defining the starting point for numerical optimizations of various physical disciplines e.g. electromagnetics, thermal, structural, etc. To this end, parametrized models in CAE environments represent designs of electrical machines allowing for highly automated design space explorations at the cost of computational power. The design space exploration will allow for a trade-off study and help choosing an optimized design candidate. However, the choice of the fundamental parametric building blocks and the associated few number of design parameters limits the design space and the overall quality of the design. Thus, the experience and knowledge of the engineer creating the CAE model and corresponding optimization parametrization is a limiting factor for the optimization process. The present work suggests a non-parametric shape optimization of the rotor surface for a permanent magnet synchronous machine for eliminating the limitation of parametrized optimization for CAE models of electrical machines. A parametrically pre-optimized rotor is applied as initial design for a non-parametric surface shape optimization that minimizes the torque ripple and maximizes the average torque as an objective function. Additionally, a strength constraint enforces the mechanical stress not to exceed a given tolerance. The present optimization approach builds on numerical FE analysis for the electromagnetic and structural domain, respectively. The optimized rotor shape is determined using mathematical programming and adjoint sensitivities for electromagnetic design responses for objective function and structural strength constraint. An example will illustrate the proposed approach. The paper concludes with an outlook addressing other important key performance indicators e.g. iron losses or nodal forces. Noise and vibration, and system simulation integration highlight further areas of application.
optimization, synchronous machine, non-parametric shape, electromagnetics, structural
08:55
conference time (CEST, Berlin)
Electromagnetic Field Simulation of Moving Parts
27/10/2021 08:55 conference time (CEST, Berlin)
Room: E
T. Rüberg, L. Kielhorn, J. Zechner, (TailSit GmbH, AUT)
T. Rüberg, L. Kielhorn, J. Zechner, (TailSit GmbH, AUT)
The numerical analysis of electrical devices by means of Finite Element Methods (FEM) is often hindered by the need to incorporate the surrounding air. Next to the complexity of the discretisation of the air region, this exterior region has to be truncated by artificial boundaries and thereby incurring a modelling error. Even more problematic are moving parts which require tedious remeshing and remapping techniques. As an example, consider the numerical analysis of snapping magnets where an air mesh between the objects would become severely deformed. In this work, we take an alternative approach by using the Boundary Element Method (BEM) in conjunction with FEM. Whereas the solid parts of the electrical device are discretized by the FEM, which can easily account for material non-linearities (e.g., ferromagnetism, permanent magnets), the surrounding domain is represented by BEM via a surface-only discretisation. This approach significantly reduces the modelling time and avoids mesh entanglement due to large deformation or movement of the considered parts. To overcome the overall quadratic complexity of the Boundary Element Method, we have developed a massively parallel Fast Multipole Method (FMM). The formulation is capable of accurately predicting nodal forces, which are then used subsequently for an assessment of the mechanical behaviour of the devices. We have implemented the FEM-BEM coupling approach into LS-DYNA in order to simulate a wide range of multiphysic applications which involve eddy-current or magnetic effects. Taking advantage of LS-DYNA's sophisticated structural analysis capabilities and without the need to mesh the surrounding air, the simulation of magnetic metal forming processes, electromagnetic welding, inductive heating and moving magnets becomes feasible. In this work we discuss the advantages and drawbacks of the method and show how a robust, scaling implementation has been achieved. Finally, we present some benchmarks and practical examples which demonstrate the accuracy and wide range of applicability of the method.
electromagnetic fields, multiphysics, FEM-BEM coupling, moving parts, electrical devices
09:15
conference time (CEST, Berlin)
Private 5G Wireless Network Design in a Smart Factory Environment
27/10/2021 09:15 conference time (CEST, Berlin)
Room: E
M. Rütschlin (Dassault Systèmes, DEU)
M. Rütschlin (Dassault Systèmes, DEU)
Manufacturing across many industries is currently undergoing a revolution. Smart factories promise tantalizing benefits like faster production with better reliability, while at the same time increasing efficiency and reducing cost. The unique benefits of the new 5G communications standard – reliability, real-time responsiveness, high data rate communication and connectivity for huge numbers of connected device – can make the promise a reality. Applications for private network licenses are increasing rapidly, and with them the need for designing and deploying those networks. Modern high-tech factories are large, complex and dynamic environments, undergoing continuous reconfiguration and filled with moving equipment, autonomous vehicles and perhaps even people. Fulfilling the demanding communication network requirements in such an environment will be extremely challenging, and will require careful planning and maintenance. Virtual design will play a central role in planning and operating the network so that critical links are resilient in the face of potential disruptions caused by moving vehicles and machines. Understanding the specific transmission channels in the factory, and the potential for their interruption, allows redundancy to be built into the network and overall reliability to be increased. Keeping operational downtime to a minimum during the planning process is crucial, which means that measurement based network design workflows need to be refined to reduce disruptions due to network measurement campaigns. Electromagnetic simulation in particular will be an essential tool to understand and ensure radio performance. Combining modelling tools and advanced geometric-optics based ray tracing yields a simulation-based approach that holds promise for the design of a robust wireless communication infrastructure. This paper will discuss the simulation techniques and workflows required for ensuring coverage and quality of service performance of the communication network infrastructure. With a thorough knowledge of the factory geometry and materials used, the techniques described could be used to virtually plan how many wireless access points are required and where they should be located, as well as deciding how best to place antennas on equipment or vehicles to minimize communication blind spots.
5G, Smart Factory, Wireless Network Design
09:35
conference time (CEST, Berlin)
Impact of a Strong Electromagnetic Field on Rebars in a Reinforced Concrete Building: Design Guidelines and Safety Assessment
27/10/2021 09:35 conference time (CEST, Berlin)
Room: E
J. Wheeler (SIMTEC Solution France, FRA)
J. Wheeler (SIMTEC Solution France, FRA)
To design installation close to high-power AC electromagnetic device, a prediction of the electromagnetic coupling may be mandatory. The present device is composed of different high current multi-turn coils located near the installation, a conductor mesh. At first, the interactions between the different coils are assessed. The Maxwell-Ampère equation is solved through the magnetic vector potential formulation. Thanks to this potential, the magnetic induction field is deduced together with the induced current in the coils. Using a superposition principle, it is possible to build the coupling matrix which describes the self-inductance of each coil and the mutual inductances linking the different coils together. Then the Maxwell-Ampère equation is solved again using the same formulation but in a different configuration. As a first step, the magnetic induction field is deduced together with the induced current in the mesh. As a second step, the temperature within the mesh is computed in a time dependant simulation to predict the temperature rise in the mesh all along the coil working cycles. The simulations are run with COMSOL Multiphysics using a finite element method. Thanks to the computation results, local heating zones are identified: the mesh used in this topic is not fully periodic and some local mesh elements concentrate currents and heat. The heat in these areas is such that the mechanical properties of the mesh can be compromised notwithstanding the fatigue due to thermal dilatation cycles. As a result, design guidelines are established for similar installations located in the presence of high-power AC electromagnetic devices. The mesh should be as periodic as possible to spread the induced currents over the largest quantity of mesh elements. Moreover, a minimum distance between the installation and the coil should be respected. In the present installation, the use of simulation is of high importance to ensure the whole system integrity over the long run.
Maxwell, Induction, Coil, Electromagnetism, Heat, Eddy, Joule
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