C16
Manufacturing Process Sim 3

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10:40
conference time (CEST, Berlin)
Materials & Process Modelling in Aerospace -- from PhD Topic to Everyday Engineering Task
28/10/2021 10:40 conference time (CEST, Berlin)
Room: C
S. Van Der Veen (AIRBUS CTO, FRA)
S. Van Der Veen (AIRBUS CTO, FRA)
Modelling of materials and manufacturing processes (Integrated Computational Materials Engineering, Virtual Manufacturing, …) has been a subject of development for decades. Some sub-fields, such as metal forming, or plastic injection moulding, have become very mature. Thousands of companies of all sizes use those to their advantage, every day. The field is broad, however, and many sub-fields are still the area of research, for example additive manufacturing, or the forming of large and thick non-crimp fabric blankets. A modern airframe is made of dozens of materials, using hundreds of qualified manufacturing processes. This breadth and complexity has made industrialisation of materials- and process modelling difficult in aerospace. Things are changing, however, driven by the need for increased efficiency, the arrival of new engineers for whom simulation is second nature, and the increasing robustness and user-friendliness of integrated software suites. Airbus is turning the challenges provided by the current crisis into an opportunity to better prepare the future, by making major investments in digitalisation and sustainability. Physics-based materials- and process modelling is being made integral part of the design- and manufacturing preparation phases, to speed up those phases and reduce any risk of errors. We give examples of the latest advances both in modelling methods and tools, and in re-organising the airframe development process for faster, model-based design space exploration. Modern airframes make widespread use of large integrally machined metal parts. Machining distortion has long been an issue in this sub-field. Today, finite element-based machining distortion prediction is used systematically to improve machining strategies in the plants. However, the use of this simulation technology does not end there: it is also being introduced in part design phases. This way, designers can trade part performance against potential risks of not meeting the required tolerances, and mitigate these risks already in the design. Large carbon fibre reinforced thermoset composite parts also make up major portions of the airframe. Curing distortion is an inevitable challenge in this sub-field. Finite element-based simulation of the physics of curing today allows to compensate moulds right first-time. But material- and process modelling even finds applications in the design of these parts, as designers are starting to use it to optimise lay-ups simultaneously for performance as well as manufacturing. Airframe assembly, finally, has until recently been organised for small-series manufacturing. Production rates have grown however, and an industrial revolution is underway that will transform this sub-field to much more resemble the assembly of mass-produced products. Manufacturing process simulation is being used to design the future production system, but also to apply Design-for-Assembly principles to future product designs.
Manufacturing Process Simulation, Integrated Computational Materials Engineering, Virtual Manufacturing
11:00
conference time (CEST, Berlin)
Simulation of Hot Rolling of AISI 430 Ferritic Stainless-steel Slabs at Industrial Scale Using Finite Element Method
28/10/2021 11:00 conference time (CEST, Berlin)
Room: C
A. Ojeda Lopez (University of Cadiz, ESP); M. Botana Galvin, P. Astola Gonzalez (Titania, ESP); J. Contreras Fortes (Acerinox, ESP); J. Botana Pedemonte (University of Cadiz, ESP)
A. Ojeda Lopez (University of Cadiz, ESP); M. Botana Galvin, P. Astola Gonzalez (Titania, ESP); J. Contreras Fortes (Acerinox, ESP); J. Botana Pedemonte (University of Cadiz, ESP)
Hot rolling is one of the most widely used process by the industry for manufacturing metallic materials, so that almost 80% of metallic products undergo a process of hot rolling at least once during their production cycle. Due to the great importance of rolling processes, a big deal of research has been done during recent decades looking forward the improvement of understanding and optimisation of this type of process. In recent decades, the study of rolling processes has been approached using different analytic and numerical methods. Of all the analysis methods available, Finite Element Method (FEM) is the one which provides results in the faster and most precise way. The use of software based on analysis by finite elements allow modelling and predicting the behaviour of the material during the rolling process. By making use of this type of software, it would be possible to develop new rolling processes or propose improvements to existing processes without the for trial and error. Within this context, it is necessary to highlight that there is a great interest from the big worldwide stainless-steel manufactures in the use of this type of tools in order to obtain information that can help to the improvement of manufacturing process of various type of products. Because of this reason, numerous initiatives have arisen aimed at the application of simulation software using FEM for the study of this type of processes. In the present work, Simufact Forming software has been used to simulate the hot rolling step of 2000 x 1000 x 200 mm AISI 430 ferritic stainless-steel slabs on an industrial scale. The validation of simulations has been done by comparing the models generated by the software and the data recorded in the real process. The work is oriented towards the simulation of stresses, deformations and surface temperature that occur during the rolling process and that could be related to the appearance of defects whose existence translates into a loss of production yield and efficiency in the use of natural resources used in the manufacture of these stainless-steels.
Simulation, FEM, AISI 430, Stainless-steel, Simufact Forming, Hot Rolling
11:20
conference time (CEST, Berlin)
Virtual Testing for Predicting Effect of Automated Fiber Placement Manufacturing Defects
28/10/2021 11:20 conference time (CEST, Berlin)
Room: C
A. Chiappini, (Stelia Aerospace, FRA); S.G. Rodriguez, S. Miot, L. Barriere (IRT Saint Exupery, FRA); C. Huchette, C. Fagiano (ONERA, FRA)
A. Chiappini, (Stelia Aerospace, FRA); S.G. Rodriguez, S. Miot, L. Barriere (IRT Saint Exupery, FRA); C. Huchette, C. Fagiano (ONERA, FRA)
Actually aero-structures are preliminarily sized as designed and not as manufactured. Manufacturing issues and defects are mainly taken into account downstream in the development cycle when costly demonstrators are produced and analyzed. That approach leaves on one hand limited room to the designer to improve/modify the initial configuration and on the other hand it constrains manufacturing to respect strict engineering requirements introducing conservativeness. Automated manufacturing technologies as Automated Fiber Placement ensure high quality, repeatability and flexibility opening the way to new composite architectures and AFP advanced programming tools allow to simulate the as-manufactured parts to be accounted in preliminary sizing. However, unavoidable AFP singularities as gaps and overlaps together with fiber deviation respect to the nominal calculated orientation and their effects should be also managed in an early phase of the structure definition. The number of possible combinations between singularities is huge and limited physical test campaigns don’t permit to understand their influence (Knock Down Factors) and optimize their distribution. This will require increased predictive capabilities and efficient simulation methods to be validated for effect of AFP defect prediction. In this work, part of the IRT Saint-Exupery VITAL Project, a framework of virtual testing is developed combining advanced academic damage models, finite element models and surrogates for predicting the ‘’Effect of manufacturing defects’’ on the strength of composite laminates. Meso-scale damage models representing materials at ply level are developed by academic partner ONERA. A key aspect of this work is FE modelling of defects at coupon level, depending on the type of defect itself. Standard plain and open hole tensile tests with several combination of defects have been simulated using simple to complex FE models. Experimental data and tomography scans are referred for validation. Automatic generation of models contributes to the generation of a database and the modeling of a surrogate.
Virtual Testing, Composite Materials Simulation, Automated Fiber Placement (AFP), Effect of Defects
11:40
conference time (CEST, Berlin)
Calculating Stress-free Shapes of Sheet Metal Parts Measured with Over-constrained Fixtures
28/10/2021 11:40 conference time (CEST, Berlin)
Room: C
F. Claus, H. Hagen (TU-Kaiserslautern, DEU); B. Hamann (UC Davis, USA)
F. Claus, H. Hagen (TU-Kaiserslautern, DEU); B. Hamann (UC Davis, USA)
We present a finite element (FE) approach to compute the stress-free shapes of non-rigid sheet metal parts, scanned in an over-constrained fixture set-up. These set-ups are commonly used for measuring non-rigid parts where one must compensate gravitational effects to comply with quality requirements. The over-constrained fixture set-up induces part tensions, and one must understand how these affect the geometry. Wrong interpretations can be made during quality inspection. This can lead to wrong decisions regarding countermeasures, and inappropriate tool modifications or undesirable adjustments to manufacturing processes might be made. Post-processing of measured part geometry helps with the understanding of deflections caused by gravity or external fixture forces. We optically scan and digitize a part’s geometry and use this data to generate a mesh for a simulation. The simulation model also considers the material behavior and boundary conditions of the fixture. This “digital twin” is used to calculate the stress-free part shape with an FE software package, involving iterative shape optimization. As the mesh is derived from the acquired point cloud, a CAD geometry representation is not needed in our workflow, assuming that the entire part can be scanned. Our approach is motivated by applications in the automotive and aerospace industries, where one must understand the deformable behavior of thin sheet metal parts for quality assurance purposes. We demonstrate the performance of our approach for experimentally generated and simulated data for a simple experimental set-up, and we discuss use cases from the automotive industry. Our experimental results have maximal absolute error values less than 0.05mm, measured in surface normal direction. These error values are on the same scale as measurement uncertainty for commonly used 3D scanning systems. In particular, the main contributions of this paper are: -Iterative shape optimization algorithm based on FE simulation models. -Calculating the stress-free shape of measured parts by resolving deflections caused by gravity and over-constrained fixture set-up. -Validations with experimental and simulation data showing the usability for real-world use-cases.
Gravity-Free-Shape,3D-Metrology,Sheet-Metal-Parts
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