C15
Manufacturing Process Sim 2

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08:35
conference time (CEST, Berlin)
Virtual Prototyping for Curing Control and Distortion Prediction of the HTP Leading Edge Manufacturing
28/10/2021 08:35 conference time (CEST, Berlin)
Room: C
A. De Gregorio De Juan (ESI Spain, ESP); F. Martín de la Escalera, M. Hernandez García (Aernnova Engineering Solutions Ibérica, ESP); S. Masqué Barri, C. Terrés Abóitiz (ESI, ESP)
A. De Gregorio De Juan (ESI Spain, ESP); F. Martín de la Escalera, M. Hernandez García (Aernnova Engineering Solutions Ibérica, ESP); S. Masqué Barri, C. Terrés Abóitiz (ESI, ESP)
The manufacture of new and complex aeronautical components made of composite materials with thermoset resins produces difficulties in the predicting the final distortion due to the curing process. In the present analysis, we will show how to use the PAM-Composites- simulation solution to create a Virtual Twin of the manufacturing process to understand and control the filling and curing process and predict the final distortion of the manufacturing of a Wind Leading Edge of the Horizontal Tail Plane. The control of curing distortions in composite components for aerostructures is not included, to date, as an essential design tool in early design phases of the components to adjust the design layup or the manufacturing process parameters. The simulation will take into account all the injectors, heating system (hot plates), tooling and physics involved both in the RTM filling process and in the curing and demolding, to know the heat exchange and temperature distribution in order to optimize the curing process and the energy consumption and to ensure the resin supplier´s curing recommendations. The whole process is chained in an end to end process to facilitate the data transfer and try out studies. With this information, the solution is able to know the phase change of the resin (liquid, rubbery and glassy state) to accurately simulate the mechanical behavior of the composite material and predict the deformation of the composite part during curing, and after the different demolding steps considering the strains due to the shrinkage and thermal expansion of the composite part and mold. The simulated results will be validated with the experimental results of the manufacture of a demonstrator where the filling evolution, temperature evolution from the thermocouples and the displacements after demolding will be measured. The works described in this article belongs to the Clean Sky 2 LPA program ; CS2-WP1.4.1 HLFC - Hybrid Laminar Flow Control Demonstrator.
Energy consumption, RTM Porcess, Thermoset resin, Virtual Prototyping, Warpage, Spring-in, Distortion, Thermal control, PAM-Composites, Leading Edge
08:55
conference time (CEST, Berlin)
Impregnation and Flow Analysis Under a Roller in Double Belt Press for Manufacturing Thermoplastic Composites
28/10/2021 08:55 conference time (CEST, Berlin)
Room: C
O. Ishida, K. Nunotani, K. Uzawa (Kanazawa Institute of Technology, JPN); Y. Aono (ESI Japan Ltd., JPN); J. Kitada, (IPCO K.K., JPN)
O. Ishida, K. Nunotani, K. Uzawa (Kanazawa Institute of Technology, JPN); Y. Aono (ESI Japan Ltd., JPN); J. Kitada, (IPCO K.K., JPN)
Carbon fiber reinforced thermoplastics are gaining interest because of the advantages such as short cycle times, toughness, and recyclability. The composite parts can be produced from thermoplastic composite sheets, also known as organo-sheet by stamp-forming technology. A double-belt press is one of the solutions for organo-sheet production. The machine consists of heat and pressure modules for impregnation and a subsequent cooling module for solidification, enabling a continuous compression molding process. There are two types of press systems for a double-belt press, the isobaric press, and the roller press. The roller press system is more versatile for various kinds of composites There are several fixed rollers in the heating zone on both the upper and lower sides where the minimum gaps can be controlled between the belts. The pressure is not constant under rollers, which depends on the materials and process conditions. Therefore, the understanding of the combined behavior of the fabric compaction, resin impregnation, and resin in-plane flow under a roller is inevitable to optimize the process parameters for the efficient impregnation in double belt press. In this study, we have developed a simplified simulation model to investigate the impregnation process under a roller in double belt press using PAM-COMPOSITES® software (ESI group). The model consists of a fabric layer, a resin layer, and an inclined steel belt. The software utilizes fluid-solid mechanics coupling to determine the fabric compaction and can handle the vanishing gaps between the steel belts during the impregnation process. We have studied the influences of process parameters on the pressure profiles, impregnation, and resin in-plane flow using this simulation. Furthermore, we have conducted the experiments using double belt press and compared the results with the simulation results. The results will be helpful to optimize the effective impregnation process for organo-sheet production using double belt press system.
Thermoplastic composites, Impregnation process, Continuous manufacturing
09:15
conference time (CEST, Berlin)
Manufacturing Simulation of Sheet Molding Compound (SMC)
28/10/2021 09:15 conference time (CEST, Berlin)
Room: C
S. Revfi, A. Albers (Karlsruher Institut für Technologie (IPEK), DEU); N. Meyer, L. Kärger (Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Institue of Vehicle System Technology (FAST), DEU); M. Bartkowiak, L. Schoettl (Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), K. Behdinan, University of Toronto, CAN
S. Revfi, A. Albers (Karlsruher Institut für Technologie (IPEK), DEU); N. Meyer, L. Kärger (Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Institue of Vehicle System Technology (FAST), DEU); M. Bartkowiak, L. Schoettl (Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), K. Behdinan, University of Toronto, CAN
Fiber reinforced polymers are characterized by a superior specific stiffness and strength. But the good material properties can only be found in preferential fiber direction. Therefore, it is indispensable to know the fiber orientation for the design of components and the evaluation of the mechanical component behavior. For long fiber reinforced polymers, such as sheet molding compound (SMC), the fibers are re-oriented due to the material flow during manufacturing. In this respect, the material flow is directly dependent on the component design. Accordingly, there is a direct dependency between design, material and manufacturing, which must already be considered during the initial design phase of SMC components. In order to be able to take the fiber orientations resulting from the manufacturing process into account in the component design, manufacturing simulations are used in the context of virtual product development. For this purpose, the flow behavior during compression molding of SMC has to be calculated. The resulting mechanical behavior of the component can only be predicted by accounting for a sufficiently accurate prediction of the fiber orientations. This contribution discusses the simulation of compression molding of SMC in Autodesk Moldflow 2019. Therefore, the modeling of characteristic flow properties is shown. In addition to the selection of appropriate manufacturing conditions (such as size and compressibility of the initial charge, press speed etc.), this also includes target-oriented modeling of the wall friction behavior in order to be able to represent wall-slip which is characteristic for SMC. The results generated in Moldflow for the fiber orientation tensors are compared with real fiber orientations in the component analyzed by optical evaluation methods. Additionally, compression force and cylinder displacements are compared to recorded press data. In a second step, the anisotropic material properties are provided for structural simulations in Dassault Systèmes Abaqus using a mapping procedure. The results of the mechanical simulations are also compared with experimental results. It was found that the friction at the mold wall, which is crucial for the material flow, was not sufficiently modeled in Moldflow 2019. Through direct cooperation with the responsible developers, the problem could be solved, and Moldflow 2021 could be used to calculate the resulting fiber orientations and compression forces with sufficient accuracy. The accuracy has been validated by evaluating the fiber orientations, predicted compression forces as well as the mechanical structural response.
Design, Fiber reinforced polymers, Fiber orientation simulation, Manufacturing simulation
09:35
conference time (CEST, Berlin)
An Updated Simulation Framework for the Prediction of Process Induced Shape Distortion in Thermoset Composites
28/10/2021 09:35 conference time (CEST, Berlin)
Room: C
N. Traiforos, D. Fernass, F. Glock, G. Schuhmacher (Airbus Defence and Space GmbH, DEU); T. Turner, D. Chronopoulos (The University of Nottingham, GBR); P. Runeberg (Premium AEROTEC GmbH, DEU)
N. Traiforos, D. Fernass, F. Glock, G. Schuhmacher (Airbus Defence and Space GmbH, DEU); T. Turner, D. Chronopoulos (The University of Nottingham, GBR); P. Runeberg (Premium AEROTEC GmbH, DEU)
A significant problem encountered during the manufacturing process of thermoset composite structures is the distortion of their shape from their CAD-nominal geometry. Shape distortions can be attributed to the residual stresses which are imposed within the structure during its manufacture. The choice of a suitable material model to simulate process induced distortions is important in order to achieve a right first time approach in the design of new moulds. This work investigates the ability of the Cure Hardening Instantaneously Linear Elastic (CHILE) model and a linear viscoelastic material model to predict process induced distortions of an aerospace composite frame. The CHILE material model is widely used to simulate shape distortions of composite structures due to its simplicity, its fast calculation times and its enhanced accuracy relative to the use of pure elastic models. However, it cannot predict any stress relaxation during curing. The linear viscoelastic material model investigated employs an innovative constitutive update scheme for simulating anisotropic, thermo rheologically simple, viscoelastic solids. The implementation of a viscoelastic material model allows the simulation of all the time dependent factors which affect shape distortions like the cure time, heating and cooling rates and stress relaxation. The modelling of the viscoelastic behaviour of the resin is done with the use of a generalized Maxwell model. A novel methodology is applied for shifting the relaxation times of the composite based on its temperature and degree of cure. Both material models were coupled with a cure kinetics model and a chemical shrinkage model in order to capture the multi-physics phenomena that take place during the curing process. The constitutive equation of the material models is implemented using the UMAT subroutine of the ABAQUS FEA software. As a reference for assessing the accuracy of the developed simulation processes and boundary conditions, measurement data which come from the 3D scanning of the manufactured frame is used. It is shown that the viscoelastic model more accurately predicts the measured distortions due to its ability to account for stress relaxation. Further steps to increase the accuracy of the simulation processes are proposed.
Process induced distortions, Thermoset composite materials, Aerospace structures
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